GCSE REVISION GUIDE - 7- Paper 2 Past Questions - Human

Section B: Seven resource-based, short structured questions. You will be required to answer three physical geography questions. (Coasts, Rivers and Glaciation). Each question is worth 15 marks. Total Marks = 69
(B) Written Component Two. Weighting: 35% of total assessment. Length of Examination: 1½ hours. This will comprise three sections, each with two resource-based, structured questions. You will be required to answer three human geography questions, one from each section (Settlement, Industry and Development or Interdependence). Each question is worth 25 marks. Total Marks = 75

PAPER 2

SETTLEMENT
1996 -q Why is it difficult to estimate the future population growth of cities ? (3marks - 7 lines).
(B) Study Figure 5 which shows the level of pollution in some of the worlds largest cities .
q Which city suffers the most pollution ? (1mark - 1 line).
q Which type of pollution shown in Figure 5 causes the most wide spread high pollution ?
q State two likely causes of the pollution listed in Figure 5 ? (2 marks - 6 lines )
q For each of your answers to (iii) suggest how these causes of pollution could be reduced ?
(C ) Read the article in Figure 6 carefully .
q State briefly the main point of view in the article ? (1 mark - 3 lines).
q With the help of Figure 6 argue the case for : Either : Building business parks Or : Protecting green belts Choice : (4 marks - 12 lines).
(D) For a settlement that you have studied that has changed during the last 100 years or more :
q Name the settlement : (Note the settlement can be a village , town , city or part of a large urban area).
q State briefly reasons for settlement first developing ? (2 marks - 6 lines) .
q Describe how the settlement has changed as it developed ? ( 5 marks - 14 lines ).

1997
What are "commuters" (1) ?
Why do some people argue that commuters should use public transport (4) ?
State two reasons for building New Towns (2).
Describe and suggest reasons for the pattern of roads in the part of Telford shown on the map provided (6).
What are the disadvantages of New Towns (2) ?
Suggest why the range of goods sold in Telford town centre is likely to be greater than that sold in a local service centre (4)

1998 - (A) Study Figure 3. This shows the hierarchy of settlements in part of East Anglia.
q What is a 'hierarchy of settlements' ? (2 marks - 6 lines) q Describe the pattern of settlements as shown in Figure 3 (3 marks - 9 lines).
q Why are there more shops and services in cities than in smaller settlements ? (3 marks - 9 lines)
(B) Study Figure 4. This shows the rate of urbanisation in selected countries of Africa and Europe. q Use Figure 4 to name one of the countries with the highest rate of urbanisation (1 mark).
q What is the meaning of the term 'urbanisation' ? (2 marks - 6 lines).
(C) Most large towns and cities in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) include areas of Shanty Towns.
q Describe two main features of Shanty Towns (2 marks - 6 lines).
q Use examples you have studied to explain how the problem of Shanty Towns can be reduced (6 mark - 18 lines).
(D) Using examples you have studied, describe the problems caused by the decline of inner cities in a More Economically Developed Country (MEDC) such as the United Kingdom (6 marks - 18 lines).
1999 - What is "urbanisation" (1) ?
What are shanty towns (2) ?
How can shanty towns be improved (4) ?
How ay the functions of settlements change over time (2) ?
Using one or more examples, describe how the outward growth of a settlement can affect the surrounding countryside (4).
Using one or more examples that you have studied, explain how inner cities areas can be improved (6).

2000 - Many people are moving to cities in LEDCs. Explain the problems caused by the growth of cities in LEDCs (4).
In which part of the city are the "suburbs" found (1).
Describe the problems caused in cities in MEDCs caused by the growth of suburbs (6).
The growth of cities in LEDCs and MEDCs has an impact on the surrounding area. What planning strategies can be used to manage the growth of cities (6) ?

2001 - Describe and explain the relationship between settlement size and the number of services (4).
In many MEDC cities there are problems in the CBDs. Using one or more examples, describe some
of the schemes being used to improve these areas (6).
What is urbanisation (1) ?
Describe the distribution of the world's largest cities (4).
Shanty towns are a feature of many cities in LEDCs. Describe the location of shanty towns ini cities of LEDCs (2).
The growth of many shanty towns has caused problems both for the people who live in then and for local government. Describe and explain these problems (6).

INDUSTRY
1995 - (A) Study Figure 11, on the insert, showing Chatham and the estuary of the River Medway, Kent.
q There is an oil-fired power station at the mouth of the River Medway, in the background of the photograph. What type of energy is produced in oil-fired power stations ? (1 mark - 1 line).
q Name two other fuels that are used in power stations (2 marks - 2 lines).
q Use evidence from Figure 11 to describe the advantages of estuaries for industrial development. (6 marks - 18 lines).
q Why might some people be against the industrial development of an estuary like that shown on Figure 11 ? (3 marks - 9 lines).
(B) Study Figure 12 which gives some of the reasons for high-tech industries locating in the area around the city of Cambridge.
q What is "high-tech" industry ? (2 marks - 6 lines).
q Choose one of the reasons shown on Figure 12 which you think is important for high-tech industry. Explain why you have chosen this reason (2 marks - 7 lines).
q In what way do the locational factors of high-tech industries differ from those of traditional manufacturing industry ? (3 marks - 9 lines).
q Energy conservation is important in both the Developed and the Developing World. Comment on the importance of energy conservation (6 marks - 17 lines).

1996 - (A) Study figure 9A, which shows the location of some of the new Science and engineering jobs that have been created in England and Wales. Figure 9B is a location map.
q Name an example of an industry that would be closely linked with Science and Engineering (1 (1 (1 mark - 1 line) q Describe the distribution of the new Science and Engineering jobs in England and Wales (3 marks - 9 lines)
q State briefly why both access to motorways and nearness to universities may be important for jobs in the Science and Engineering industries Access to motorways… (3 lines/1 mark) Nearness to Universities… (3 lines/1 mark)
q State two ways that governments can try to influence the location of an industry (4 lines - 2 marks).
q Explain why governments sometimes become involved in the location of industries. (9 lines - 3 marks).
(B) Study figure 10, which gives information about the shipbuilding and car manufacturing assembly industries in North East England.
q What is the meaning of the term 'assembly industry'? (3 lines - 1 mark)
q Why is it important for an assembly industry to have other industries nearby ? (3 lines/1 mark)
q Suggest how the shift from the ship building industry around Sunderland to the car manufacturing industry around Washington may have affected this part of North East England. (12 lines - 4 marks).
(C) For an industry you have studied in the Developing World:
q State briefly the type of industry and its location. Type of industry - (2 lines). Location (2 lines - 1mark).
q State briefly the main features of the type of industry that you have chosen. (6 lines - 2 marks).
q Explain why this type of industry has developed in the location you have studied. (15 lines/5 marks).

1998 INDUSTRY
q What is a 'multinational company' ? (2 marks - 6 lines).
q How can multinational companies affect the economies of Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) ? (5 mark - 15 lines). (B) Study Figures 9A and 9B on the insert, the photographs of factory workers in the United Kingdom making high quality glass by hand.
q Suggest why much of the work shown in Figures 9A and 9B is done by hand (2 marks - 6 lines).
q Why is glass making described as a secondary industry ? (1 mark - 3 lines).
q Describe the links between secondary industries and tertiary industries (3 marks - 9 lines).
(C) Study Figure 10, which shows some of the major road and rail projects in southeast England.
q State two ways that transport schemes help industry (2 marks - 2 x 3 lines).
q Industrial location is influenced by many factors other than transport. Use examples you have studied to explain how European industries are influenced by these factors (7 marks - 21 lines).

DEVELOPMENT
1995
INTERDEPENDENCE
(A) Study Figure 20, which shows some information on World trade for 1991.
q What are "exports"? (1 mark - 3 lines).
q Which part of the World shown on Figure 20 has the highest level of exports ? (1mark - 1 line).
q Which part of the World shown on Figure 20 has the fastest growth in exports? (1 mark, 1 line) (B) Figure 20 shows NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement, established in 1993 when Canada, Mexico and the United States of America signed a free trade agreement.
q What is a "free trade agreement" ? (2 marks - 6 lines).
q Why do countries sign free trade agreements to join international trading blocs ? (4 marks - 12 lines).
q How does "trade make the world go round"? (3 marks, 9 lines) (C) ACTIONAID is a British charity, which raised just over £30 million in 1992 to support development work in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Study Figure 21 which shows where ACTIONAID's money came from in 1992 and how the money was spent.
q What was the proportion of money spent by ACTIONAID on development work in 1992 ? (1 mark - 1 line).
q Why is it necessary for a charity to spend money on "fundraising" ? (2 marks - 6 lines).
q How do charities such as ACTIONAID help countries to develop ? (6 marks - 18 lines).
q Why do the governments of some Developing countries prefer to get aid directly from the government of a Developed country, instead of through a charity ? (4 marks - 12 lines).
1995 - INTERDEPENDENCE
(A) q Which country shown in figure 20 has the highest percentage of its trade with Eastern Europe and the former USSR? (1)
q Which country shown in figure 20 has the highest percentage of its trade with the European Union? (1)
q What is the "European Union"? (2)
q Suggest why many developing countries, south of the Mediterranean sea, carry out so much trade with the European Union? (3) q Why is international trade so important? (4)
q How can governments encourage international trade? (2)
(B) q The graph shown in figure 21 shows the percentage of each country's aid programme that is given as tied aid. How much of the UK's aid was given as tied aid in 1991? (1)
q What is the meaning of the term "Tied Aid"? (2)
q Why do governments not provide more aid developing countries? (2)
q State 2 ways that aid programmes could be improved. (2)
q Explain fully the meaning of "Long-term development". (You may use 1 or more examples that you have studied. (5)

1997 -
CONTRAST IN DEVELOPMENT
(A) Study Figure 18, showing some development indicators for countries around the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.
q Which country shown on Figure 18 has the most patients per doctor ? (1 mark - 1 line).
q What is the meaning of the term "literacy" ? (1 mark - 3 lines).
q Why is literacy a useful indicator of development ? (2 marks - 6 lines). q What is the meaning of the term "GNP per capita" ? (2 marks - 6 lines).
q State briefly why the Development Line has been drawn where it is shown on Figure 18. (2 marks - 6 lines)
q Using Figure 18, suggest why the Development Line makes the contrasts in development between countries on either side of this line seem too simple. (4 marks - 12 lines).
q What do the different literacy rates for males and females suggest about the status of women within society in different countries ? (2 marks - 6 lines).
(B) Study Figure 19, a newspaper article on Spain's plans for increasing the water supply to the southern and eastern parts of the country.
q Use Figure 19 to state two reasons for the increase in demand for water in Spain (2 marks - 4 lines)
q How can rivers be used to redistribute water supplies? (2 marks - 5 lines).
q What is irrigation? (2 marks - 5 lines).
q Explain why improvements in water supply are needed to help areas to develop. (You may use one or more examples that you have studied. These may be from the Developed or Developing World (5 marks - 15 lines).
1998 - DEVELOPMENT (A) Study Figure 13. The left side of this graph shows the total amount of Aid donated by ten countries. The right side of this graph shows the percentage of the national wealth that is donated as Aid. All data are for 1992.
q Complete Figure 13 by plotting these figures for the Untied Kingdom: US $ MILLIONS OF AID DONATED = PERCENTAGE OF NATIONAL WEALTH = (2 marks).
q Which country shown on Figure 13 donated the least Aid (in US $) (1 mark).
q Describe the differences between the Aid donations of the USA and The Netherlands, as shown on Figure 13 (3 marks).
q State one reason why governments donate overseas Aid (1 mark). q What are the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of overseas Aid ? (6 marks) .
(B) Read the newspaper article, Figure 14. It is about a report on the state of health in some of the world's poorest countries. The report was produced in 1996 by a charity, the 'Save The Children Fund'.
q Which continent has the most countries with poor health care ? (1 mark).
q Why is there such a difference between the poorest countries and Britain (a More Economically Developed Country) in the amount of money spent on health ? (3 marks)
q The newspaper article states that 'environmental hazards, such as unreliable water supply, diseases and pests also cost poor countries large sums of money and make it impossible for many countries to spend more on health'. Explain why such problems are so difficult to solve (8 marks)