10.6 Development

Contrasts in development are related to economic, environmental, social and political conditions.

Specification Detail

Contrasts between MEDCs and LEDCs in measures of population such as birth rate, death rate, natural increase; health such as infant mortality, people per doctor and life expectancy; housing, literacy and GNP. Economic and political conditions impact upon levels of development such as the industrial structure and the political policies of the Government.

Guidance

Students should be able to define the measures given and to understand their significance in terms of their measurement, for example many LEDCs have death rates equal to or lower than those of MEDCs. Similarly in some countries the population data may suggest an LEDC while development indicators for health and education may approach those of MEDCs due to political policies, country size, colonial influences etc.

Scale  G/I

Specification Detail

Environmental conditions and hazards contribute to differences in levels of development. Differences in availability and cleanliness of water supply between MEDCs and LEDCs. Differences in quality and quantity of food supply in LEDCs. Sample studies to illustrate these problems and solutions to them. The solutions should illustrate the way in which some schemes use appropriate technology and promote sustainable development whereas others may not always benefit the environment and the local population.

Guidance

Small-scale studies are adequate such as the problems of water supply in the Sahel and various schemes mostly operated by NGOs to build wells and provide pumps so as to improve water supplies contrasted with say the UK where in general water supplies are abundant and clean.

Scale -  N/R/L

Trade and aid in MEDCs and LEDCs and its consequences.

Specification Detail

North v South – the main pattern of trade and the balance of trade between the north and the south. The types of products produced. The socio-economic, environmental and political advantages and  isadvantages of this pattern of trade to MEDCs and LEDCs. Small scale studies to show how trade is interdependent.

Guidance

The possible solutions to the imbalance of trade such as fair trade and its importance for global citizenship. Students should appreciate the global imbalance in trade and the problems of countries, mostly LEDCs that rely on a limited range of primary produces susceptible to world markets and the

buying power of the MEDCs. Advantages and disadvantages should be considered from the economic, social political and environmental viewpoints and the attitudes of different interest groups should be considered.

Scale - G/I

Specification Detail

Why is aid needed? Different types of aid – emergency (short term), political, charitable, conditional (tied) aid, long term aid. Sample studies to illustrate the different types of aid and the advantages and disadvantages of these types of aid.

Guidance

The imbalance of trade, environmental hazards and development indicators provide the evidence

for a world in which there are great gaps in development between the rich and the poor making aid between countries necessary.

Scale - R/L