Changes in the Physical Environment;

       Unit I; Shorter Term Change
       Atmospheric process and weather conditions.
       Responses to inputs in to a drainage basin; hydrological, geomorphological and ecological variations.
       Seasonal atmospheric changes; causes, relationships and effects on human activity.

       Unit II; Longer Term Change
       Change during and since the Pleistocene; climatic, vegetation and soils, and the evidence of this.
       Long term change; plate tectonics theories and processes.

Interactions Between People and Their Environments

       Unit III; Conflict Over Resources
       Relationships between people and resources; approaches, indicators, responses, distribution, and solutions.
       Population and Resource Issues.
       Conflicts over a resource at the local scale; attitudes, conflict between opposing views, market and planning processes and their operation, identification of beneficiaries and losers. C/S - Topley Pike
       Organising resources (Energy); use of various types of resources, effects, attitudes towards different methods, interdependence of supply and demand, and impact of government policies.

       Unit IV; Hazards
       Definitions, origin, distribution, frequency, scale, nature of the hazard to the environment, degree of prediction, responses, management and relief, national/supranational responses.
       Hurricanes to exemplify atmospheric hazards, fires to exemplify ecological hazards, volcanoes and earthquakes to exemplify tectonic hazards.
       Pollution, from built environment, human environment, and physical environment. Sources, international effects, responses. C/S Chernobyl, Acid Rain.

Changes in the Human Environment

       Unit V; Changes in the UK in the last 30 years
       Economic; fluid movement of business, roles of MNCs, regional disparities, effects of technology, import/export of business to the UK, attitudes to the changes, and key decision makers who influence the changes.
       Social/Demographic within cities of over 50,000; segregation by race, social status or income, social inequalities, attitudes and decision makers involved in demographic change.
       Political; decentralisation, political change, and regional divisions. Changes in voting patterns to the House of Commons, as an example.

       Unit VI; Changes in the Wider World in the last 30 years.
       Economic; MNCs or TNCs (Multi- or Trans- National Corporations); relations to global economy, internal and external influences, the effects of TNCs on investment flows. Attitudes and decision makers involved.
       Technological; effects of technology on the economic, social, built and physical environments, effects on technology and employment. Attitudes to these changes and decision makers involved.
       Social/Political Changes; relationships between multicultural societies, migration, ethnic groups. The degree to which the regions are integrated or subject to separatist pressures, consequences of decentralisation, attitudes to these and key decision makers.

Option Units

       Landforms and Change
       Past and Present Glacial and Periglacial Environments, Glacial processes, and erosion. Landforms, post glacial modification, and the areas affected by glaciation.
       Coastal Processes and Landforms; Marine processes, their landforms and modifications, interaction between marine and sub aerial processes, and the effect of coastal geology and vegetation.
       Coastal Landforms and Long Term Change; changing sea levels and the results on coastal geomorphology, direct and indirect effects of ice on coastlines, organic processes and coastal landforms, influences of human activity.

       Historical Rural and Urban Landscapes of England and Wales.

       Rural Landscapes as a changing resource; Bronze/Iron Age Settlement, Anglo Saxon villages, open field landscape, changes resulting from enclosures, growth of scientific agriculture, and the emergence of planning policy, National Parks, AONBs, green belts, Forestry Commission, National Trust.
       Urban Landscapes over time; evidence of the past in the modern town, architectural heritage of periods like Tudor, Stuart, Georgian, Regency, Industrial towns and associated social problems. Emergence of planning. Ideal villages and 20th century landscape. Garden Movement, and New Towns, influence of new technology and styles. Attitudes to urban design.
       Emergence of Heritage Industry; presentation, development and exploitation of aspects of the past as a revenue generator, preservation, educator or integral part of modern developments.

The above subject content is grouped in to module tests as follows.

Module GGO1; based on Units I, III and IV.

Module GGO2; based on and Key Themes and Detailed Material in the subject content (Section A) and based on Units I, III and V for Section B. [Rivers fieldwork, Downstream flow variables, River Clywedog, Erddig Country Park, Wrexham]

Module GGO3; based on Units I, III and V.

Module GGO4; based on Units II, IV and VI.

Module GGO5; Coasts and Glaciation.

Module GGO8; Historical Rural and Urban Landscapes of England and Wales.