13.3 Human Geography: Changes in Countries in Various States of Development in the last 30 years.
Core - Periphery case study; an MEDC.
Mezzogiorno as a peripheral region.
Specification descriptors: A2 Module 4 unit 13.3
Name and describe national government policies drawn up to address the core periphery situation.
At the start of our 30 year period the EC recognised 5 main types of disadvantaged region.
The relative importance of these shifted as the European Community grew and new members brought new problems
A problem from the start:
1. Underdeveloped regions, such as much of the
Mediterranean area, dependent upon agriculture, with low incomes and poor
An increasing focus for the 1970s and 80s:
2. Declining industrial regions. Iron and
steel closure areas, heavy manufacturing e.g. ships, textiles, coalfields. e.g. North of England,
3. Peripheral regions with poor access to markets for products.
Border regions where there are major barriers to trade across the border. The Federal German border with the Communist DDR.
The 1980s focus:
4. Urban problem areas with severe social environmental and economic difficulties.
Decaying port cities like
5. Inner city issues in most European cities.
The South of
There was little EC
regional support policy up to the late 1960s so Italian Government policy is
industrial and urbanised North THE CORE centred upon the triangle
Milan-Turin-Genoa. A backward, less developed South, THE PERIPHERY of the Mezzogiorno, dependant more upon agriculture than the
average for MEDCs.
Italian Government strategies for the periphery.
Land Reform; after World War 2 the transfer of ownership from estate landowners, with compensation, to small farmers and co operatives.
Cassa per il Mezzogiorno (the Fund for the South.)From 1955, Investment capital. By 1965 government spending was 60% of all investments and 40% by non state organisations to the South.
Industrial development- the unfortunate “cathedrals in the desert” government directed developments intended to create industrial growth centres.
By 1970 80% of government investment was going to the Mezzogiorno. Highly localised results Relatively few jobs. Heavily subsidised.
By the 1970s there was a change towards trying to create growth axis along the coast and into the interior. Italian companies were forced using “carrot and stick policies” to relocate to the South and broaden the regions economic base. e.g: FIAT cars
FIAT is based in
Private firms reluctant to relocate after the 1970s.Little
effect away from the actual sites with the industry concentrated in
Tourism. From the 1970s package holiday boom onwards, exploiting landscape, climate, culture and heritage sites. Spreading prosperity more evenly geographically, but coastal biased. Benefits from infrastructure investments; reservoirs, roads, airports.
Corrupt local politics and the Mafia inhibits
democratic processes. e.g. Control of commercial
contracts and labour. e.g.
The EC created Structural Funding for the regions from the early 1970s. The Mezzogiorno continues to benefit from them as a peripheral region of the EU.
E.g. The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
“the ERDF is intended to redress the principle regional imbalances in the Community through participating in the development and structural adjustment of regions lagging behind in the conversion of declining industrial regions.” BUT
Use any sources to create 1/2 page A4 notes, define and explain the ERDF as a policy for peripheral development.
a) Why does a national government have a regional policy to
reduce the Core Periphery effect? E.g. In the case of
b) Discuss the attitudes of nationalist workers in
c) Discuss the attitudes of working class people in
d) Discuss the of the