The Effects of the Hazard

Physical Effects & Psychological Effects:
         Damage to property.
         Fear of recurring disaster Damage/destruction of buildings .
         Fear of being in buildings
         Huge clean up cost
         Loss of confidence in area Ė migration
         Loss of vegetation and wildlife habitats (e.g.Mt St Helens)
         Injuries and loss of life (Mexico City earthquake)
         Damages investment and property markets (San Francisco)
         Increased insurance premiums in disaster area

Sources to discover frequency of occurrence and the reliability of these sources.

         Study of seismographic data, collation of this data into a forecast or prediction (Pinatubo)
         Empirical observation on the ground by geologists e.g. measuring gaseous emissions (Volcano), geology of a fault (Earthquake).

Description of responses that have been made in order to prevent the hazard and or manage the hazard

         Tightening of planning laws-buildings must be earthquake proof
         Monitoring of active faults by geological surveys. (Mount St Helens)
         Increased investment by local and national government in protection/ management of future hazards.
         Increased reliance on seismography and geological surveys.
         Presence of contingency planning by local and national emergency services.
         Installation and upgrading of equipment to deal with the effects of the hazard
         Education of populous to the dangers of the hazard and ways to prepare for the future

How successful these responses are based upon the perception and understanding of the hazard


        
They are hazards that cannot be eradicated; they are the result of natural global cycles. Therefore the results can only be in terms of planning and preparation.
         In more developed countries that have strong infrastructures and government organisation there has been the injection of financial and economic resources into ways of predicting and managing these natural hazards.
         However in LEDCís which do not have the same infrastructure or planning the responses are less than encouraging, there is a tendency to ignore the threat because the alternative of financial injection into prevention and management schemes is beyond the resources of the country.
         However in terms in education and awareness, there is a far greater perception of the hazard and what needs to be done to prepare and cope with it.

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