Environmental and social issues resulting from the balance between population and the use of resources in countries in various states of development. Population and resource issues in MEDCs and LEDCs
- over population and underpopulation related to resource availability; Definitions of over population;
under population;
optimum population

Use of case studies to illustrate the relationship between population, resources and technology, e.g., China, Chad - over population; Canada, Sweden - underpopulation.
Secondary source utilisation;texts, published statistical data.
- the concept of optimum population related to resource availability;

Link to the concept of sustainable development.

Case study of MEDC sustainable development.

Case study of LEDC sustainable development.

- birth rates, fertility, death rates,

infant mortality and longevity;
Data source and limitations. Definitions. Use of examples from LEDCs and MEDCs to illustrate factors which affect these rates, e.g., level of development, policy factors, etc.,dependent on case study chosen. Evidence limitation. Scatter Diagrams(including trend lines). Spearman rank. Bar graphs. Secondary source utilisation:published statistical data. Key Skill:IT: Task 2.
- optimistic and pessimistic approaches to population and resources; Theoretical outline and present day evidence to support the approaches of e.g. Neo Malthusians and Boserup. The concept of sustainable development. Secondary source utilisation:Published statistical data.
- different attempts made by countries to manage the balance between population and resources. Use of a case study to look at technological, social and environmental solutions including sustainability. An assessment of the success of the programmes. Secondary source utilisation: texts.
Environmental and social issues arising from the use of energy resources in countries in various states of development. Energy resource issues in MEDCs and LEDCs:
The differences between renewable and non-renewable resources; Definitions and examples of a case study from an LEDC and a MEDC illustrating and explaining the different proportions of renewable and non-renewable resources used for energy production. Proportional divided circles, Triangular graphs.
The study of two different energy systems(one renewable and non-renewable resource); One case study for each system including reasons for location, method of production, advantages and disadvantages. Secondary source utilisation: text.
The issues associated with the harnessing of energy: acid deposition:the emissionof "greenhouse gases"; deforestation in LEDCs; Origin/cause, geographical location, effects, prevention and management of the issue. The concept of sustainability. Map and photograph interpretation.
The hazard of nuclear waste and its management. As above for nuclear waste. Secondary source utilisation: texts, published statistical data.

1(a) With reference to population studies, what is the meaning of each of the following terms? (i) fertility (ii) longevity (4)
(i) Describe, at the global scale, the distribution of sparsely populated and densely populated areas.
(ii) Relate one named densely populated area to the availability of resources. (11) (15)

2(a) Outline either
(i) an optimistic approach or
(ii) a pessimistic approach to the relationship between population and resources. (4)
(b) Discuss three ways in which people have attempted to solve the problem of the imbalance between population and resources. (11)

3 Answer the following question by referring to competition/conflict over the use of a resource in an area with one or more of the following characteristics - high landscape, value coastline, urban fringe
(a) Identify two different groups of people and/or organisations which were in competition/ conflict with each other over the use of the resource, and suggest reasons for their attitudes. (5)
(b) For the people and/or organisation wanting change in the area, describe the main environmental changes that were likely to take place if the proposals were successful. (3)
Suggest how planning and/or market processes may operate in order to resolve the conflict. (7)

4 (a) With reference to the study of population, state the meaning of the term "fertility". (3)
Identify two issues that may arise from the introduction of schemes aimed at reducing fertility. (2)

1(a) With reference to examples, describe the differences between renewable and non-renewable resources. (5)
(b) Discuss the problems associated with estimating the reserves of, and demands for, resources. In your answer you should include some reference to possible solutions to these problems.(5)
(c) Outline either a pessimistic or an optimistic approach to the use of resources by people.(5)

2. Answer the following by considering systems of harnessing energy.
(a) What is meant by each of the following terms? (i) intermediate technology (ii) advanced technology (4)
(b) Choose one system of harnessing energy which is either intermediate technology or advanced technology.
(i) Name and briefly outline the system of harnessing energy. (3)
(ii) Suggest the reasons for adapting this particular system in an area that you have studied.(4)
(iii) Discuss the effects of this system on the physical and human environments. (4)

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