Although it may
be initially hard to understand how a reasonably large country, with
a relatively small population could be overpopulated, the bullet points
bellow will show how and why overpopulation has occurred. These must
be looked at remembering that overpopulation is an unsustainable demand
on available resources.
- The fertility
rate in Chad is extremely high, which obviously contributes largely
to the overpopulation, and fast population increase.
- Due to a high infant mortality rate (96.66 deaths/1000 live births),
many women will have lots of children to allow for this fact, since
health and medical care is increasing (death rate is now relatively
low), the need for so many children is lower, but people have not
been educated to this fact, increasing the pressure on resources.
- The large fertility rate is also due to cultural factors, since
most people in Chad work in agriculture, a larger family is seen
as beneficial for the productivity, even though this may not be
the case in reality.
- Chad has a harsh desert margin environment, without many natural
resources, and has a low population density as a result. The large
size of the country emphasises this fact. The standard of living
in Chad is also generally low.
- Fertility rates may remain high because of a lack of education,
since Chad is in political turmoil, and has a lack of infrastructure.
- Chad suffers from severe drought, which destroy the livelihoods
of some inhabitants, and reduce the available resources to support
them - hence a status of overpopulation. 41% of Chad's population
work in the primary sector.
- Chad's heavy reliance on external aid also highlights the overpopulation
- since all resources are now fully utilised in trying to support
the country, allowing none to be invested for further development.
- The calorie intake per capita is only 75% of minimum requirements,
showing the problems of overpopulation.
Migration out of the country is common, and often forced as a result
of the conditions.
- An unstable economy in Chad (with inflation currently at 12% in
1998) causes currency to be devalued, and makes people less able
to satisfy their needs for a adequate standard of living.
- The poverty of Chad limits its purchasing power, and limits the
finance available for investments and improvements, which would
help to combat the overpopulation.