LOWER SIXTH - KGP SCHEDULE, WEEKS 2-9
MODULE 1 THE DYNAMICS OF CHANGE
10.2 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT -POPULATION AND RESOURCES - CHAD

CHAD - HOW CHINA'S OVERPOPULATION RELATES TO RESOURCE AND TECHNOLOGICAL AVAILABILITY

Population (2000 estimate) - 8 million
Natural Increase - 3.3%
Doubling Time - 21 years
Projected population 2025 - 17.3 million
Total Fertility Rate (2000 estimate) 6.63 children born/woman
Area 495,753 miles
Population Density 82 people / mile

Overpopulation Analysis

Although it may be initially hard to understand how a reasonably large country, with a relatively small population could be overpopulated, the bullet points bellow will show how and why overpopulation has occurred. These must be looked at remembering that overpopulation is an unsustainable demand on available resources.

- The fertility rate in Chad is extremely high, which obviously contributes largely to the overpopulation, and fast population increase.
- Due to a high infant mortality rate (96.66 deaths/1000 live births), many women will have lots of children to allow for this fact, since health and medical care is increasing (death rate is now relatively low), the need for so many children is lower, but people have not been educated to this fact, increasing the pressure on resources.
- The large fertility rate is also due to cultural factors, since most people in Chad work in agriculture, a larger family is seen as beneficial for the productivity, even though this may not be the case in reality.
- Chad has a harsh desert margin environment, without many natural resources, and has a low population density as a result. The large size of the country emphasises this fact. The standard of living in Chad is also generally low.
- Fertility rates may remain high because of a lack of education, since Chad is in political turmoil, and has a lack of infrastructure.
- Chad suffers from severe drought, which destroy the livelihoods of some inhabitants, and reduce the available resources to support them - hence a status of overpopulation. 41% of Chad's population work in the primary sector.
- Chad's heavy reliance on external aid also highlights the overpopulation - since all resources are now fully utilised in trying to support the country, allowing none to be invested for further development.
- The calorie intake per capita is only 75% of minimum requirements, showing the problems of overpopulation.
Migration out of the country is common, and often forced as a result of the conditions.
- An unstable economy in Chad (with inflation currently at 12% in 1998) causes currency to be devalued, and makes people less able to satisfy their needs for a adequate standard of living.
- The poverty of Chad limits its purchasing power, and limits the finance available for investments and improvements, which would help to combat the overpopulation.


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