The Historical Rural and Urban Landscapes of England and Wales
Evolution of rural landscapes The effects of technological social and economic changes. Evidence of this evolution in the present landscape.
The open-field landscape. Anglo Saxon advances in clearance of woodland - the ard, the mould board plough. Settlement sites and factors affecting these. Evidence: archaeological; place name; aerial photographs.
Reasons for the development of ridges/furrows/open fields. The landscape around these are part of the agricultural system e.g., woodland, fen, moorland.
Use of photographs: oblique/vertical aerial photographs. Ordnance Survey maps to show ancient sites

The pattern of ridges and furrows identified on aerial photographs.
Changes in the landscape resulting from enclosures, which took place between the 16th and 19th centuries. Commercialisation of farming as background reason. The Agricultural Revolution: field pattern changes; Parliamentary enclosure; settlement dispersed; straighter routeways; replace winding tracks; loss of woodland and common land Documentary evidence, photographic interpretation.
Evolution of urban landscapes.
The evidence of the past in the modern town:
the architectural heritage of Georgian/Regency periods, with specific reference to examples, such as, Bath. Identification of the building styles of Georgian/Regency. Specific reference to location within the present town. Street patterns and public/private buildings.Georgian Architecture.
Regency Architecture.
Opportunity for fieldwork, e.g., Bath/York/Chester. Use of documentary evidence and old maps.
The effects on the built environments of political, technological, social and economic change.    
Evidence of this evolution in the present day urban landscape. The need for planning in the 19th century town. The problems that existed and introduction of By-laws to control building.  
The industrial town of the 19th century: o by-law housing; o location of industry and transport; o the enlightened industrialists utopian ideas, e.g., Saltaire and Port Sunlight. The original factors attracting industrial growth -coal/raw materials - rail and canal transport. Mills and factories adjacent to them. Specific examples of where still seen, e.g. Manchester.  
New Towns New building materials and technologies Enlightened industrialists, e.g., Titus Salt, Cadbury Bros. with their ideas for improving the environment for their workforce. A planned town -e.g. Stevenage or similar.  
Rural and urban landscapes as resources to be protected, but also used. Different attitudes to landscapes can lead to conflicts.    
The preservation, development and exploitation of aspects of landscapes as a source of tourist tncome with reference to: Why protection is needed: retaining historical character; tourism as a major factor; education of future generations. Cost of protection and agencies involved - National Trust, English Heritage. Specific examples of building, streets and rural scenery. 1801 Census and old Ordnance Survey maps. Comparison with present day towns. Town directories/old photographs and documents.
' either an historic city such as Bath, York or Chester; I or an industrial heritage site such as Ironbridge, Beamish, or the London Docklands; or a National Park, or an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Conflicts and attitudes to this protection. Who decides what is 'worth' preserving/ conserving?

Preservation and conservation in Chester

Fieldwork. Ordnance Survey maps of various dates. Photographs.
June 1998

1a.) Describe the sites of Anglo-Saxon villages and the characteristics of the area surrounding each village.
b.) Enclosure of the land surrounding many Anglo-Saxon villages took place from the 16th into the 19th centuries. Using photographs A and B only, identify and describe features of the rural landscape that may have resulted from enclosure.
c.) Discuss some of the conflicts and interest that have arisen over the destruction of woodland and other natural landscapes as a result of the development of scientific agriculture.

2.a) Using an annotated sketch map only, describe the main elements of the urban landscape that could be seen in the industrial town during the 18th and 19th centuries.
b.)Describe and suggest reasons for the environmental hazards that were associated with 19th century industrial towns.
c.)Discuss the extent to which attitudes and values of enlightened industrialists were reflected in urban landscapes of the mid to late 19th century industrial towns.

3a.) Identify two pieces of evidence that could be used to show that conservation/ preservation is taking place within the present day urban landscape. Describe how one of these can be used to show how one of these can be used to show this conservation/ preservation.
b.)With reference to specific examples describe the variety of buildings which are being conserved/ preserved within the Heritage Industry. Suggest reasons why this conservation/ preservation is thought necessary.
c.)Discuss the issues which arise when public and/ or private money is allocated to the heritage industry.

June 1999

1.)With reference to any towns you have studied, describe the ways in which the political, economic and social processes, which created the pre-industrial town, are reflected in the present town.
2a.) Draw a labelled diagram or sketch map to show the typical features of an Anglo-Saxon open field system and other features of the area surrounding the village.
b.)                Between the 16th and 19th centuries, farming became increasingly commercial. Discuss three effects that this had on features of the rural landscape, such as the field system and settlement pattern.

3a.) Identify two pieces of evidence which show that the rural landscape is under threat. Describe how one of these shows this threat.
b.)                With reference to specific examples, describe the ways in which various groups and organisations are attempting to protect the rural landscape.
c.)                Discuss three of the issues which may arise when planning policy is used to protect rural areas.

4a.) Identify two pieces of evidence that could be used to show the environmental and social problems of the 19th century industrial town. Describe how one of the pieces of evidence shows these problems.
b.)                Describe the ways in which enlightened industrialists, and the planners of New Towns, aimed to reduce the environmental and social problems associated with urban living.
c.)                Discuss some of the attitudes to the new building technology and architectural fashions which characterise New Towns and other 20th century urban landscapes.

June 2000

2a.) Using a labelled sketch map only, indicate the main features of the urban landscape in 19th century industrial towns.
b.)                Discuss how the rapid growth of the 18th and 19th century industrial towns may have been the cause of their environmental and social problems.
c.)                Describe three ways in which the planners of 20th century New Towns aimed to reduce some of the environmental and social problems of urban living.

3.) Describe and suggest reasons for the changes which occurred in the rural landscape as a result of the enclosure of land taking place from the 16th century onwards.

4a.) Identify two pieces of evidence that can be used to study the growth of urban settlements. Describe how one of these pieces of evidence is able to show this growth.
b.)                Describe the ways in which the political, economic and social processes that operated in the pre industrial town are reflected in the present urban area. In your answer you should refer to specific towns or cities within England and Wales.
c.)                Some elements of the urban landscape have been preserved/ conserved. Discuss three issues which may arise in the present day urban areas as a result of putting conservation/preservation policies into effect.

Site created by Nucleated Technology
Copyright 2000