MODULE 2 The Physical Options 11.1
Glacial Environments
The effects of glacial, fluvioglacial and periglacial activity Introductory definitions of terminology
Glacial budgets • Accumulation and ablation System analysis:
• Inputs (e.g. snow, frost, ice, frost shattered material)
• Outputs ( e.g. evaporation, meltwater, moraine)
• Zones of ablation and accumulation
The characteristics of ice flow movement, flow rates and the factors affecting them: • Rotational flow • Extending and compressing flow The influence of factors such as:
• Temperature fall; ice thickness increases
• Temperature rise; ice shrinks/ front recedes
Secondary source utilisation:
• Published statistical data
• Photographic and map interpretation. Remote sensing imagery
• Maps at avariety of scales
Glacial erosion, transport and deposition: processes and associated landforms Link to glacial base (ice contact) and rock surface above ice
• Frost shattering, abrasion and plucking Organisation and presentation of evidence.
Photograph and map interpretation.
• Corries and associated landforms: arκtes and pyramidal peaks • Corrie landforms • Stepped long profile of the glaciated valley/ hanging valley/ribbon lakes
• Glacial troughs and associated landforms • Corrie landforms • Stepped long profile of the glaciated valley/ hanging valley/ribbon lakes
• Glacial moraine and other deposits • Till,drumlins,erratics, lateral and end moraines
Fluvioglacial erosion, transportation and deposition: processes and associated landforms
• Outwash plains and associated features
• Kames and eskers
Braiding and formation of outwash lakes: characteristic features and processes of formation, with case studies.
Drainage diversion directly or indirectly caused by glaciation
Periglacial processes and associated landforms: • Permafrost formation • Frost heave and contraction • Nivation • Solifluction , patterned ground, ice wedges and pingoes • Glacial overflows and spillways
• Watershed breaching
• Proglacial lakes
• Active layer and permafrost
• Geographical distribution of active features and relic features in the British Isles

1a)Identify two sources of evidence that you could use to suggest that an area has been glaciated in the past, although there is no glacial ice in the area today. For one of the sources show how the evidence indicates the past presence of glacial ice.   (5)
b)For any one landform you have studied where erosion by glacial ice has played a major part in its formation, identify the landform and describe its shape. Suggest the part played by glacial ice in its formation.                                                           (10)
c)For any one area you have studied where landforms could have been created initially by ice deposition, suggest why it is difficult to interpret the role played by glacial action in the creation of the landscape.                                                                   (10)

2(a) (i)Using one or more annotated diagrams only, describe the characteristics of ONE landform created by periglacial processes.                                                                                 (5)
(ii)Explain how periglacial processes created the landform you have chosen.       (7)
(b)In areas immediately in front of a glacier, meltwater is a major factor in the formation of surface features.Describe the features of such an area and explain the role of meltwater in their formation (13)

Study figures 12,13,14 and 15 which show various aspects of the margin of the glacier in Iceland.
(a) Describe the changes in the position of the ice front as shown in Figure 13.                (3)
(b) Give an explanatory account of the differences in composition that you would expect between the deposits marked S and those marked T on Figure 12.                                       (6)
(c) Using Figures 12,13, 14 and 15 describe and account for the surface form, field distribution and formation of three of the following features:
(i) meltwater channels with braided streams,
(iv)kettle holes.                                      (16)           (25)